- When is a patient safe for discharge after procedural sedation? The timing of adverse effect events in 1,367 pediatric procedural sedations.Ann Emerg Med. 2003; 42: 627-635
- Adverse events of procedural sedation and analgesia in a pediatric emergency department.Ann Emerg Med. 1999; 34: 483-491
- Practice guidelines for sedation and analgesia by non-anesthesiologists.Anesthesiology. 2002; 96: 1004-1017
- Clinical policy for procedural sedation and analgesia in the emergency department.Ann Emerg Med. 1998; 31: 663-677
- Guidelines for monitoring and management of pediatric patients during and after sedation for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures.Pediatrics. 1992; 89: 1110-1115
- Preprocedural fasting state and adverse events in children undergoing procedural sedation and analgesia in a pediatric emergency department.Ann Emerg Med. 2003; 42: 636-646
- Risk reduction in pediatric procedural sedation by application of an AAP/ASA process model.Pediatrics. 2002; 109: 236-243
- Comparison of fentanyl/midazolam with ketamine/midazolam for pediatric orthopedic emergencies.Pediatrics. 1998; 102: 956-963
- Sedation for pediatric echocardiography: evaluation of preprocedural fasting guidelines.J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2002; 15: 980-983
- Revisions to Anesthesia Care Standards: Comprehensive Accreditation Manual for Hospitals.Joint Commission of Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations, Department of Publications, Oakbrook Terrace, IL2001
- Zaritsky A.L. Nadkarni V.M. Hickey R.W. PALS Provider Manual. American Academy of Pediatrics and American Heart Association, Dallas, TX2002: 379-396
- Does midazolam alter the clinical effects of intravenous ketamine sedation in children? A double-blind, randomized, controlled emergency department trial.Ann Emerg Med. 2000; 36: 579-588
- Adverse events and risk factors associate with sedation of children by nonanesthesiologists.Anesth Analg. 1997; 85: 1207-1213
- Pulmonary aspiration risk during emergency department procedural sedation: an examination of the role of fasting and sedation depth.Acad Emerg Med. 2002; 9: 35-42
- Adverse sedation events in pediatrics: analysis of medications used for sedation.Pediatrics. 2000; 106: 633-644
Author contributions: MGR, JEW, LB, and JB conceived the study. MGR, JEW, and LB oversaw data collection. LB provided statistical advice on study design and analyzed the data. MGR drafted the manuscript, and all authors contributed substantially to its revision. MGR takes responsibility for the paper as a whole.
Presented at the Pediatric Academic Societies meeting, Seattle, WA, May 2003.
The authors report this study did not receive any outside funding or support.
Reprints not available from the authors.