- The Taser weapon: a new emergency medicine problem.Ann Emerg Med. 1985; 14: 1205-1208
- Electronic weaponry—a question of safety.Ann Emerg Med. 1991; 20: 583-587
- Manojlovic D. Review of Conducted Energy Devices. Canadian Police Research Centre, Ottawa, Canada2005 (TR-01-2006.)
- Cardiac safety of high voltage TASER X26 waveform.2003 (Paper presented at: 25th Annual International Conference of the IEEE EMBS; September 17-21; Cancun, Mexico.)
- Acidosis, lactate, electrolytes, muscle enzymes, and other factors in the blood of Sus scrofa following repeated TASER exposures.Forensic Sci Int. 2006; 161: 20-30
- Cardiac safety of neuromuscular incapacitating defensive devices.Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2005; 28: S284-S287
- Effects of cocaine intoxication on the threshold for stun gun induction of ventricular fibrillation.J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006; 48: 805-811
- Cardiac electrophysiological consequences of neuromuscular incapacitating device discharges.J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006; 48: 798-804
- Electronic gun (Taser) injuries.Ann Emerg Med. 1987; 16: 73-78
- Raised cardiac troponins.BMJ. 2004; 328: 1028-1029
- Cardiovascular and physiologic effects of conducted electrical weapon discharge in resting adults.Acad Emerg Med. 2006; 13: 589-595
- Comparative Anatomy and Physiology of the Pig.United States Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD2000
- Aqueous oxygen hyperbaric reperfusion in a porcine model of myocardial infarction.J Invasive Cardiol. 2002; 14: 160-166
- Aqueous oxygen attenuation of reperfusion microvascular ischemia in a canine model of myocardial infarction.ASAIO J. 2003; 49: 716-720
- Normal physiological values for conscious pigs used in biomedical research.Lab Anim Sci. 1990; 40: 293-298
- Excited Delirium Syndrome: Cause of Death and Prevention.Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, FL2006
- Comparative physiological responses to exercise stress.J Appl Physiol. 1982; 52: 1077-1083
- Cardiovascular effects of sevoflurane compared with those of isoflurane in volunteers.Anesthesiology. 1995; 83: 918-928
- Effect of respiratory acidosis on metabolism in exercise.J Appl Physiol. 1982; 53: 63-69
- Lactate accumulation, proton buffering, and pH change in ischemically exercising muscle.Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2005; 289 (author reply R904-910): R895-R901
Supervising editor: Stephen R. Thom, MD, PhD
Author contributions: CAB conceived the study and obtained research funding. EJD, RLH, and CAB designed the trial. AOE, EJD, JAS-M, and RLH supervised the conduct of the trial and data collection. AOE and RLH collected the data. AOE analyzed the data. JAS-M examined the ECGs. AOE drafted the article, and all authors contributed substantially to its revision. AOE takes responsibility for the paper as a whole.
Funding and support: By Annals policy, all authors are required to disclose any and all commercial, financial, and other relationships in any way related to the subject of this article, that might create any potential conflict of interest. See the Manuscript Submission Agreement in this issue for examples of specific conflicts covered by this statement. This study was supported by Stinger Systems Inc. for funding of the technical costs of the study. The authors had sole responsibility for the study design, data collection, data analysis, data interpretation, and preparation of the article. None of the authors have any financial interest in Stinger Systems Inc., nor have they received any financial support from Stinger Systems Inc. outside of the grant.
Publication dates: Available online August 23, 2007.