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Please see page 214 for the Editor’s Capsule Summary of this article.
Supervising editor: Donald M. Yealy,MD
Author contributions: JMP, BSB, CKC, JNC, and AV conceived the study. CKC supervised data collection. RL and BSB conducted the statistical analysis. All authors prepared the article. AV takes responsibility for the paper as a whole.
All authors attest to meeting the four ICMJE.org authorship criteria: (1) Substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work; AND (2) Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content; AND (3) Final approval of the version to be published; AND (4) Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.
Funding and support: By Annals policy, all authors are required to disclose any and all commercial, financial, and other relationships in any way related to the subject of this article as per ICMJE conflict of interest guidelines (see www.icmje.org). The authors have stated that no such relationships exist.
US Acute Care Solutions provided the data for this study under a data use agreement to Carnegie Mellon University. US Acute Care Solutions exercised no control over the analysis or decision to publish this study.
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