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Please see page 222 for the Editor’s Capsule Summary of this article.
Supervising editor: Theodore R. Delbridge, MD, MPH. Specific detailed information about possible conflict of interest for individual editors is available at https://www.annemergmed.com/editors.
Author contributions: JNC, BSB, JMP, CKC, and AV conceived the study. JNC, CKC, and AV supervised data collection. KMF performed the statistical analysis. JNC, BSB, JMP, and AV drafted the article, and all authors contributed substantially to its revision. AV takes responsibility for the paper as a whole.
All authors attest to meeting the four ICMJE.org authorship criteria: (1) Substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work; AND (2) Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content; AND (3) Final approval of the version to be published; AND (4) Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.
Funding and support: By Annals policy, all authors are required to disclose any and all commercial, financial, and other relationships in any way related to the subject of this article as per ICMJE conflict of interest guidelines (see www.icmje.org). The authors have stated that no such relationships exist.
The data for this study come from claims, operational, and risk management data held by US Acute Care Solutions. However, US Acute Care Solutions has no control over analysis, interpretation, or wording of conclusions.
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